Washington, D.C., was in a panic as 72,000 Confederate troops were just sixty miles away near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
After the Confederate victory at the Battle of Chancellorsville, Robert E. Lee was under a time deadline.
Mounting casualties of the war were causing Lincoln's popularity to fall, so if Lee could get a quick victory at Gettysburg, he could pressure Lincoln to a truce.
But this window of opportunity was fast closing, as Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant was about to capture Vicksburg on the Mississippi, which would divide the Confederacy and free up thousands of Union troops to fight Lee in the east.
Unfortunately for Lee, his great General, "Stonewall" Jackson had died two months earlier, having been mistakenly shot by his own men.
On the Union side, Lincoln replaced Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker with Maj. Gen. George Meade to command the 94,000 men of the Union Army of the Potomac.
The Battle of Gettysburg began July 1, 1863.
After two days of intense combat, with ammunition running low, General Robert E. Lee ordered "Pickett's Charge," where 12,500 Confederate soldiers made a direct attack on the Union position at Cemetery Ridge.
After an hour of murderous fire and bloody hand-to-hand combat, the Confederates were pushed back and the Battle of Gettysburg ended JULY 3, 1863, with over 50,000 casualties.
The next day, Vicksburg surrendered to General Grant, giving the Union Army control of the Mississippi River.
When news reached London, all hopes of Europe recognizing the Confederacy were ended.
On July 5, 1863, President Lincoln and his son were visiting General Daniel E. Sickles, who had his leg blown off at Gettysburg. As recorded by General James F. Rusling, when Lincoln was asked if he had been anxious before the Battle, he gravely answered:
"No, I was not; some of my Cabinet and many others in Washington were, but I had no fears...
In the pinch of your campaign up there, when everybody seemed panic-stricken, and nobody could tell what was going to happen, oppressed by the gravity of our affairs, I went to my room one day, and I locked the door, and got down on my knees before Almighty God, and prayed to Him mightily for victory at Gettysburg.
I told Him that this was His war, and our cause His cause, but we couldn't stand another Fredericksburg or Chancellorsville. And I then and there made a solemn vow to Almighty God, that if He would stand by our boys at Gettysburg, I would stand by Him.
And He did stand by you boys, and I will stand by Him. And after that (I don't know how it was, and I can't explain it), soon a sweet comfort crept into my soul that God Almighty had taken the whole business into his own hands and that things would go all right at Gettysburg. And that is why I had no fears about you."
Twelve days after the Battle of Gettysburg, July 15, 1863, President Lincoln proclaimed a National Day of Prayer:
"It is meet and right to recognize and confess the presence of the Almighty Father and the power of His hand equally in these triumphs and in these sorrows...
I invite the people of the United States to...render the homage due to the Divine Majesty for the wonderful things He has done in the nation's behalf and invoke the influence of His Holy Spirit to subdue the anger which has produced and so long sustained a needless and cruel rebellion."
In his Gettysburg Address, November 19, 1863, Abraham Lincoln ended:
"We here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain - that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom - and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."
At the Gettysburg Battlefield, May 30, 1934, President Franklin Roosevelt said:
"On these hills of Gettysburg two brave armies of Americans once met in contest...Since those days, two subsequent wars, both with foreign Nations, have measurably...softened the ancient passions. It has been left to us of this generation to see the healing made permanent."
In his 3rd Inaugural Address, President Franklin Roosevelt said, January 20, 1941:
"The spirit of America...is the product of centuries....born in the multitudes of those who came from many lands...
The democratic aspiration is no mere recent phase in human history. It is human history...
Its vitality was written into our own Mayflower Compact, into the Declaration of Independence, into the Constitution of the United States, into the Gettysburg Address...
If the spirit of America were killed, even though the Nation's body...lived on, the America we know would have perished."
Lincoln, Abraham. 1863, in conversation with a General who was wounded at the Battle of Gettysburg, July 1-3, 1863, relating the panic in Washington, D.C., as General Robert E. Lee was leading his army of 76,000 men into Pennsylvania.
John Wesley Hill, Abraham Lincoln—Man of God, New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1927, pp. 339–40. http://civilwartalk.com/threads/manifest-destiny-glory-hallelujah-and-the-trampling-of-grapes.1170/#ixzz1zaAPEKm8
Thomas Fleming, Lincoln's Journey in Faith" (Carmel, NY: Guideposts, February 1994), p. 36.